Farmer Began Farming by No-tilling and Planting Cover Crops to Improve Soil Health
Adam Joyner is our 36th Profiles of Soil Health Heroes. Adam is a full-time farmer operating in Gibson County, Tennessee. His farming operation is made up of eight different farms with a total acreage of approximately 700 acres. He said that all acres except 80 acres are either in winter cover crops (420 acres) or winter wheat (200 acres). Adam has his degree in Wildlife Management and began farming in 2012. He started farming by taking over a field that had been previously vertical tilled in 2012. His cover crop experience began in 2013, growing both turnips and/or radishes. The brassicas winter-killed, and Adam planted no-till into the cover. Adam never tilled or has not had cover crops in his management other than the field he took over for in 2012. Adam's farming operation consists of corn-wheat and soybean rotation. He farms predominantly Memphis Silt Loam, Providence Silt Loam, and Loring Silt Loam soil types. His slopes are gently sloping to sloping with slopes ranging 2 - 6%. These soils are from loess parent material and are highly erosive. His corn is planted on 30" row spacing while his soybeans are on 15" row spacing. Wheat is drilled. He uses a fluted coulter with a floating roll cleaner, double disk opener on his Kinze planter, and one rubber closing wheel and one spike closing wheel. Adam is considering dropping the spike closing wheel in 2018 and operate with two rubber closing wheels. He said the spike closing wheel had wrapping issues with the cover crop residue.
Adam takes intensive soil test samples on 2.5 acres grids. Samples are pulled on three-year intervals. Adam applies phosphate (P), Potash (K), and lime according to soil test and by variable rate. He previously was applying 70 units of nitrogen (N) in the form of Urea at planting for corn with a second application of 120 units (granular). Since going to cover crops, he has increased to 90-100 units of N at planting to compensate for the increased carbon from the cover crops. The second N application is side dressed at approximately the V-5 growth stage, with 60-70 units of N. He sees the need to improve N-efficiency and plans to purchase a knife applicator for side dressing of N in the future.